Modern Architecture

Art History 282/682

Week 1, Class 2

The Enlightenment

ancien régime or old order

American Enlightenment thinkers: Ben Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, Benjamin Rush, David Rittenhouse

first engineering school, École des Ponts et Chaussées, 1747

Giambattista Vico, The New Science, 1725

Voltaire, Age of Louis XIV, 1751; and Essay on the General History of Manners, 1754

Jean-François Blondel, French Architecture, 1752

James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, Antiquities of Athens, 1762

J. J. Winkelmann, History of Ancient Art, 1764

Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

Karl Marx

Vitruvius, De architectura, 30 BCE

Claude Perrault, Ordonnance for the Five Types of Columns, 1683


Horace Walpole, Strawberry Hill, Richmond upon Thames, England, 1750

The Castle of Otranto, 1764, the first Gothic novel

Batty Langley, Gothic Architecture Restored and Improved, 1741

Thomas Cole, The Dream of the Architect, 1840

Ithiel Town, important revival architect and bridge engineer

William Strickland, Second Bank of the United States, Philadelphia, 1818-1824

John Haviland, Eastern State Penitentiary, Philadelphia, 1821-1836

John Haviland, Chinese Pagoda and Labyrinth Garden, Philadelphia, 1828

Thomas Ustick Walter, Moyamensing and Debtors Prisons, Philadelphia, 1830

Thomas Ustick Walter, Founder's Hall, Girard College, Philadelphia, 1833-1847

John Notman, Athenaeum, Philadelphia, 1845

John Notman, St. Marks Church, Philadelphia, 1848-1851

Samuel Sloan, design for an Italian Villa, 1868

James Windrim, Masonic Hall, Philadelphia, 1868-1873

John McArthur Jr., City Hall, Philadelphia, 1871-1901

Frank Furness, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia, 1872-1876

Marc-Antoine Laugier, An Essay on Architecture, 1753

Heinrich Hübsch's In What Style Should We Build?, 1828

Hübsch condemned architects who "will hear nothing of a natural influence of the present but seek to achieve beauty through a slavish imitation of a completely alien past!"

Through a historical exploration of the development of structure, Hübsch "established a strictly objective skeleton for the new style."

Hübsch concluded that "In every case buildings logically designed in their basic elements will rank much higher as works of art than the most exact imitations of ancient architecture."

Eugène Viollet-le-Duc, project for a concert hall in iron, 1872

Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1851

Charles Garnier, Opéra, Paris, 1861